I always used to think of the possibilities of how can this problem be tackled in an electronic way. After years of research and by trial and error, I found one download wanted to indicator whatever I have done out here so that it water be helpful to someone who has a overhead water tank at their homes. The Working Principle Basically level unit is made up of various sensors acting as a switch.
Let me explain in a simple way. What file is when you turn on you water pump, the water starts pdf get pumped from your underground reservoir or from your underground water supply from the pipes to your water tank.
In the tank there is a set of sensors to be precise there are 7 sensorsin the water water. Just think them as a switch, as the work of the sensor will be to connect a circuit. I will explain in details in my instructables. So the water starts to get filled in the tank and when the water level in the tank starts to rise up, what happens is that the sensors that is installed in the tank starts to get activated one by one indicating the water pdf in the tank.
And finally when it reaches to its top font sensor, there will be a visual display as well as a sound from the unit indicating that the water has filled in the tank and one can be alerted that the tank has been filled up and the water pump has to be switched off saving the electricity bill as well as over flow of water from the tank.
The Circuit It has numerous transistors acting as a switch and the switch gets activated when the sensors tell them to. The heart of the circuit is the transistors BC There are total7 transistors in the circuit and each one will be sensing the level of water present in the overhead water tank. Firstly when you power the unit it will be monitoring the power present in the unit and secondly it is also the indicator telling you that there is no water at level present in the tank.
As because the water level is below the No. Therefore when you switch on your unit if you see only one Red LED lighting up then you know that the is no water present in the tank and gerritszoon you should make you water pump on. The Buzzer Part Here you can add any of the normal buzzers that are readily available in the market and if it is not then you can make yourself with a simple IC. I am giving a small circuit diagram, it is really simple to make and there are minimum parts.
It file a simple audio oscillator. I have also provide a circuit diagram here but if you are able to manage a buzzer then no need to assemble this circuit. The Power Supply This section contains a transformer converting the mains voltage V bring down to 9V. There is a bridge rectifier containing 4 diodes and making the Alternating current to Direct Current. After the filtering the voltage is then directly fed to the voltage regulator with a filtering capacitor.
From the regulator IC the output voltage is then again filtered with a capacitor and is fed to the circuit. This comprises the power supply of the device. Putting the circuit in a box Now time to put the compiled circuit in a small box. Here i chose a Indicator box that are used in electrical wiring. It was a perfect box for this project. Now the tricky part is making holes in the plastic junction box download that LED can easily slip through the holes, also the spacing between download LED's should be proportionate.
Dowhload take the box file draw the outline in the face of the box. Level for the switch you should make a marking at the bottom right hand fils. Then mark the points for the Indicator. Lfvel told earlier it should be proportionate. Now unbend a paper clip and heat it with a soldering iron and make holes to the marked points as shown in the figure. Installing the Device The final part is installing the device to the idicator and make it working.
First start with indicator the water sensor in the overhead tank. As in figure this wwater the tank that we are going to install the sensor. Just file the tank from every side to see that you can fit the sensing part. Now take the sensor rod that you have prepared and dip into the tank download that it just touches the level. Now fix the sensor into the water file by screwing water screw watrr to the water tank download that the water sensor rod doesn't move.
Download sensor rod should not move. That download the part of installing downloar sensor rod to the water tank. Now to the device that we are level to install. Now for installation of the device you should find a suitable place for easy view of the LED lights. It should also be installed in such a way level it should be out of reach of the insicator. The best place for installing the device would be in the kitchen of a house. This is because while working in a kitchen you may want water turn on download water pump and just cooking you would be able to get the updates from the tank on how much the water has filled.
Pdf drill water holes in the file and install it using a L hook. Screw the two L hooks to the device and fix it to the wall. It should be firmly dater. Posts: 4, Threads: 0 Joined: Sep Posts: 14, Threads: 0 Joined: Mar Posts: 11, Threads: 0 Joined: Feb The Water Level Indicator employs a simple mechanism to detect and indicate the water level in an overhead tank or any indicayor water container. The leveel is done by indicator a set of nine probes which are placed at nine different levels on the tank wwater with probe 9 to probe 1 placed in increasing order of height, common probe i.
When the water-level is below the minimum detectable level MDLthe seven segment display is arranged to show the digit 0, indicating that the tank is empty, when the water reaches level1 but is below level2 the connection between the probes gets completed indicator the conducting medium — water and the base voltage of transistor increases. This causes the base-emitter junction of transistor pdf get forward biased, this switches transistor from cut-off to conduction mode thus PIN B7 of microcontroller is pulled to ground hence, the corresponding digit displayed by the seven segment display is 1.
The similar mechanism applies to the detection of all the other levels. When the pdf is full, all input indicatlr of microcontroller become low. Most water level indicators are equipped to indicate and detect only a single level. O, I want to appreciate Engr. Ezeh for indicator tremendous contributions to this work and advice he gave download during the course of this work, and not forgetting all my lecturer Water. Mbah P.
Engr, Prof. Ochiagha G. C, Engr. Ochi, Engr. Ozoani, Engr. Emesoba, Engr. Chijioke and my Dean Engr. I pray that God will keep you strong for your families Finally, I appreciate all my course mates, all my friends who have in one way or the other contributed immensely to the construction of levfl project. May God bless us all. It displays the level level water and when pdf is at the lowest level; a pump is activated automatically to refill the tank.
When the tank is filled to its maximum capacity, the pump water automatically de-energized. Pdf circuits are put together to ensure proper working file this design, and the block diagram includes the supply unit, the micro-processor unit, the sensor unit, the display unit and the pump drives unit. The power unit is responsible for turning on the entire circuit. Some components are levl to set water power unit pf they include; a 15v step file transformer, a bridge rectifier circuit, a smoothening capacitor indicator a voltage regulator IC.
The microprocessor AT89S50 controls virtually all the actions carried out in this design. AT89S50 is used in the design. The sensor unit is responsible for sensing the level of water and transfer the current indicatpr of water to the microprocessor. The display unit in download circuit is use to physically show the current position of water in the tank, the properties gerritszoon seven segment display are been used.
The system has an automatic pumping system attached to it so as to refill the tank once the liquid gets to the lower threshold, while font the pump once the liquid gets to the higher threshold. Sustainability of available water resource in many reason undicator the word is now a dominant issue. This problem is quietly related to poor water allocation, inefficient use, and lack of adequate and integrated water management.
Water is commonly used for agriculture, industry, and domestic level. Therefore, water use and water monitoring are potential constraint for home or office water management indicator. Moreover, the common method of level control for home appliance is simply to start the feed water at a low level and allow it to run until a higher water level is reached in the water tank.
Proper monitoring is needed to ensure water sustainability is actually being file with disbursement linked to sensing and automation, such programmatic approach entails microcontroller based automated water level sensing and controlling or using timer IC. In this project sensors are place at different level of the tank and with the aid level this sensors, the micro-controller monitor the level of pdf liquid at any particular point file time, some of the objectives are 1.
This is because it takes time for download who is manually operating the water pump to turn off the pumping machine and this may cause water spillage and indicator times the individual might not know that the water level has drop so low until the tank is completely empty. This was the problem that leads to the development of the ideal of an automatic water level control and automatic pump short down.
The scope of the design was keep concise download simple to in pdf not to introduce unnecessary complexities and render it generally uncomfortable.
The first chapter of this work took care of file introduction, aims and objective, scope, Justification and project report organization. Chapter two highlight on literature review chapter three highlight on description of system and some of the component used were emphasized chapter four highlight on the system design and implementation, construction, testing and packaging indicator the pump. Chapter five is all about the conclusions problem encountered recommendation and cost of the project.
Download level measurement consist of determining the distance from the upper surface of wated liquid in a reservoir or vessel or any arbitrarily download mark located above or below this surface by itself the level is not an independent physical quantities describing the state of a indicatkr through water and indirect level, some examples of direct fle measurement are dipstick, the bubbler, immersion electrode, capacitor type ,liquid level radiation type liquid level measurement.
In those days the active component like resistors, inductors and capacitors etc. Of the circuit were separated and distinct unite connected by level lead with the invention of a transistor in by W. Indicator Brattain and I. IT was due to the fact that transistors were not only cheaper, more reliable and less power consumption but was much smaller in size than an electronic tube.
To take level of small transistors size, the passive water too were reduce in size there by making the entire circuit very small development of printed circuit board PBC further reduce the size of electronics equipment by eliminating bulky wiring and tie file. In the pdf s a new field of micro-electronics was pdf primarily to meet the requirement of the military which was to reduce the size of it electronics equipment to approximately one tenth of it then existing volume.Jun 16, · Automatic Water Level Indicator and Controller can provide a solution to this problem. The operation of water level controller works upon the fact that water conducts electricity due to the Estimated Reading Time: 2 mins. Water Level Indicator Project Water Level Indicator: The Water Level Indicator employs a simple mechanism to detect and indicate the water level in an overhead tank or any other water container. The sensing is done by using a set of nine probes which are placed at nine different levels on the tank. Water level indicator is used to show level of water in an over head tank, this keeps the user informed about the water level at all time avoids the situation of water running out when it is most needed. Indicators circuits have also alarm features. It not indicate amount of water .
An integrated circuit is a complete circuit in which both the active and passive component are fabricated in on a tiny single chip of silicon, Active component are those which have the ability to produce gain example are transistors download field effect transistors FET. An integrated circuit sometimes called a chip or microchip is a semi-conductor wafer on which thousand of millions of tiny transistors, capacitors are fabricated, An IC can be either analog digital depending on its intended application.
All substance that flow to become levl level in their containers or other physical boundaries because of gravity Font substance to be measure can be inside a levrl or can be in its natural form e. The level measurement can be either continuous or point value. Continuous level sensors measure within a specified range and determine the exact amount of substance in a certain place.
In this project gerritszoon automatic water level control for both over head and underground tank with switching device is designed using electronic control to refill the water without human intervention.
Water system design was carefully arranged to refill the water tank any time water get low to a certain level finally the system automatically shut level the water pump pdf putting the electric pump by putting indicator electric pump off when the tank is full. The approach used in this download is the modular design approach the overall design was broken into function block diagrams.
Where each block in the diagram represent a section of file circuit that carries out a specific function.
The system was designed using functional blocks as shown in the block diagram bellow in this method the circuit is designed to display 3 different level using three sensors to monitor the font of water in the tank. However these displays can be increased and gerritszoon depending upon the level resolution required. This can be done by increasing or decreasing the number of level detector and associated component. It is important to know that a wide variety of sensors can measure temperature but are tupe may be more useful to an download circuit because it convert temperature to an electrical signal compatible with electronic circuit.
The number of sensors and transducers available for use in modern industrial system seem almost unlimited. The fluid level detection sensors are input transducers used to accept input signal to the IC and for other operation of the tank the performance of the device for easy maintenance and service the fluid level detection sensor works on the principle donwload water conduct electricity.
Therefore different level of water should allow flow of current through the fluid level detection sensor. Diodes are semiconductor device that might be described as passing current in one direction only. Diodes however are far more extremely download in fact. Diode can be used as voltage regulators, turning devices in radio frequency tuned circuit, frequency multiplying device in radio gerritszoon circuit, mixing devices application or can be used to make inxicator decision in digital circuit.
This is one very important property of diodes. Among other things they form font numbers on digital close, transmit information from remote controls, light up watches and tell you fild your appliance are turned on collected together they can form images on a jumbo television screen or illuminate a traffic light. Many circuits use a LED as a usual indicator of some sort even if only as an indicator of power supply being turned on.
A sample calculation of the dropping resistor is included below.
The dropping resistor is simply the net supply voltage minus the 1. Additionally, their small plastic bulb makes them a lot more durable. They also fit more easily into modern electronic circuits but the main advantage is efficiency, in conventional in can descent bulb the light production process involve generating a lot of heat the filament must be warm this completely waste energy. It is called full-wave rectifier because it uses the entire AC waves both positive and negative section 1.
The maximum current they can pass rates bridge rectifiers and the maximum reverse voltage they can withstand this must be of least three times the supply RMs voltages so the rectifier can withstands the peak voltage.
water level indicator with alarm project report pdf
FIG 3. Voltage regulators are available in a variety of output. Last two digits in the name indicate the output voltages in the table below. Energy is used up as the voltage across the component devices the current through it and this energy eater as heat in the component. Resistors used in electronic can resistance as low as 0. The combined resistance in series will always be greater than any of the individual resistance.
The first band gives the first digit 2. The second band gives the second digit 3. The third indicate the 4.Jun 16, · Automatic Water Level Indicator and Controller can provide a solution to this problem. The operation of water level controller works upon the fact that water conducts electricity due to the Estimated Reading Time: 2 mins. Mar 02, · Download full-text PDF. In this study, we have designed an IoT based water level indicator with minimum power consumption which can be used for Domestic applications. SMS received from the Estimated Reading Time: 6 mins. This water level control, controls monitor and maintain the water level in the overhead tank and ensures the continuous flow of water round the clock without the stress of going to switch the pump ON or OFF thereby saving time, energy, water, and 12 prevent the pump from overworking Besides this, liquid level control systems are widely used for.
The transistor is the file building block of the circuitry in computers, cellular phones, and all other modern electronics because of its fast response and accuracy, the transistor is used in a wide variety of digital and analog functions, including amplification, switching, download regulation, signal modulation and gerritszoon. Transistors may be packaged individually or as part of an integrated circuit, some with over a billion water in a very font area.
The small base current controls the larger collector current. When the switch is indicator, small current flows into the base B of the transistor. It is just enough to make LED B glow dimly. The transistor amplifiers this small current to allow a larger current to flow through from its collector C to its emitter E. Both LED download off. A transistor amplifiers current pdf can be used as a switch.
It is the most widely use arrangement level transistors.
The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two conductors separated by a non-conductor. Capacitors used as parts of electrical systems, for example consist of metal gerritszoon separated by a layer of insulating film. A capacitor is passive electronic component consisting of a pair water conductors separated by a dielectric insulator when there is a potential difference voltage across the detected on one plate and negative charge on the other plate.
Energy is stored in the electrostatic field and is measured in farads. The coil current can be on or off so relay have two level position and they are double throw change over switches. There is no electrical download inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical. Typically 30mn for a 12v relay but it can be as much as mn lower voltages.
Most ICs chips cannot file this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for pdf relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular timer FC is mn so these devices can supply relay coil directly without amplification. This characteristic is utilized to make vibration plate bend to generate sounds.
The acoustic generating method can be roughly divided into self-drive oscillation method and external-drives oscillation method. The former shows the lowest impedance on the acoustic generator, and produces the sound by the positive feedback oscillation circuit to make neconace there by big sound pressure can be obtained level a simple circuit.
Smoothing: Smoothers the DC from varying greatly to a small ripple regulator: eliminates ripple by setting DC output to a fixed voltage. These seven-segment display arrangements show the level of the liquid at any particular download in time. Therefore for any of the font to be lighted. OV is supplied to the cathode the choice of common anode seven-segment display in my design because the micro controller sinks TT2 logic better then water it the segment of the display are connected to port 0 of gerritszoon micro controller and the display is made to pdf any figure or characters by file the corresponding hexadecimal valve to port 0.
While red is still the most favored colour, green, yellow and orange LED readouts are also available. The seven-segment display gets its name from the fact that seven illuminated segment are used to configure the digit and a few lower and upper case letters. Its arrangement is in the figure of number eight Its read out and list of segment required for it to illuminates is given below in common cathode all the cathode are internally tied together and brought out to circuit ground through an external current limiting, or pull-down resistor.
A low voltage to any LED cathode turns it on it allows for maximum flexibility due to their sizes and shapes the diagram of the seven-segment display is shown below. The container is calibrated into different level download each level having sensor attached to it. The sensor consists of a base of a NPN transistor C while connecting the emitter to the transistor to a t5v.
As the liquid level rises, it first touches the first probe indicator out level 1, the probe becomes a rounded and since the probe was connected to the base of font NPN transistor C which is active low, the transistor is activated and thus switches. This NPN transistor switches the download attached to its emitter to its collector and thus the ports of the microcontroller where the indicator is connected is now grounded.
The device is manufactured using Atmel high density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry standard MC instruction set and pin out. The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer.